Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for Laser Stage Lighting

1. How to change diets of overweight cats, one senior, other adult?

The high nutrition foods will fill them up more then the cheap brands. Think about it. If your cat is overweight and stops eating then he is hungry. Consider smaller amounts or feeding them in morning and evening times. That way you can make sure they eat all of their food. Plus it regulates their eating schedule

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2. will humans ever run out of artistic ideas?

Freedom. Most of historical past does no longer contain that notion. In feudal instances each person belonged to their lord or leader. Nobody owned slaves due to the fact that they have been all digital slaves besides. Freedom, notably Human Rights, is a latest philosophical notion

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3. How to get rid of old acne scars and stretch marks.?

Stress is one of the key contributing elements to acne. When you are anxiety, your body produces a good deal of the stress hormone cortisol. This hormone throws off the delicate hormonal balance in your entire body, top to the imbalances that promote acne growth. By managing your pressure, you minimize the odds of acne outbreaks

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4. help with stretch marks?

To get rid of stretch marks, a good topical treatment is "Stretta", which is a powerful formula that combines high-grade Glycolic Acid and medicinal botanical extracts specifically designed to minimize and even remove stretch marks. It works great to remove stretch marks found anywhere on the body. I had used it to remove the stretch marks that I had got during pregnancy and it worked wonders for me. In 3 weeks time the marks had almost faded to invisibility and the skin across my tummy looked clear and well toned

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5. When Can I Get Laser Hair Removal?

Bismillah ir-Rahman ir-Raheem used to be-salaat used to be-salaam ala Nabiyyina wa Habeebina wa Mawlana Muhammadin wa ala alihi wa sahibihi ajmaeen I dont see why no longer and that i additionally dont see why you might desire to do it? Unless your simply considering ofcourse

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6. any ideas for me?

well i cant think of anything to MAKE the actual tower..but i have some decoration ideas.how about you put those tealights on each level of the tower?or maybe just many candles on the bottom of the tower...and then you can put spotlights or something to make a miniature laser show-using torches covered with coloured plastic.

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7. Anyone know anyone who has retinopathy or familiar w disease?

Moving spots in your line of vision are called eye floaters or vitreous floaters. they may be annoying but harmful. but if it is accompanied by flashes you should see your ophthalmologist especially for diabetics because this could mean opthalmic migraine or retinal bleeding.

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8. where to celebrate New Years eve in Disney???

Hi According to me the Disney Area is very good choice to celebrate new years eve. In Disney Area there are many attractions and places where you can celebrate new years eve but before going there it is must that you have sufficient information about Disney Area. So that for more information click on this website:

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9. What's better?? Laser or electrolysis hair removal?

Electrolysis is permanent hair removal where laser hair removal is for long run. Basically, Electrolysis is also a one kind of laser hair removal method. By a thin needle electric current is applied individually to each hair follicle in electrolysis treatment and it destroys the hair follicle. It also suitable for all hair and skin types

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10. Do you believe the Moon Landing of 1969 was Real or Fake?

Only idiots think the Moon landings were faked, because everything you say is thoroughly debunked, probably long before you were born. We have pictures of the landing sites taken from lunar orbit by space probes from several nations. What do you think, that NASA sent robots there to fake the landing sites? Wake up, anonymous troll, and start using your head for something other than growing hair. . .

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11. I am interested in Laser Hair removal for several areas of my body?

Any official dermatologist will let you know there is no everlasting technique to casting off physique hair, however essentially the most powerful approach and no longer the most affordable is laser or electrolysis. Laser is meant to be much less painful and a quicker procedure. I have had laser hair removing and was once very blissful with the results, however it is going to take 6-eight treatments for the entire hair to be eliminated "forever. ".

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12. What is the best scar removal cream?

Stress is one of the major contributing aspects to acne. When you are stress, your physique creates a whole lot of the pressure hormone cortisol. This hormone throws off the delicate hormonal balance in your body, major to the imbalances that encourage acne growth. By managing your anxiety, you lessen the odds of acne outbreaks

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13. whats the song that the devil sings called in tenacios d and the pick of destiny?

music a brief musical composition with words; "a efficient musical could have a minimum of three good songs" Piece musical composition: a musical paintings that has been created; "the composition is written in 4 strikes" Composition A musical theory, many times at the same time with melody, rhythm, and harmonic shape, created via a composer

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14. Favorite Point Blank Stage?

i've got have been given each Namco Museum call. Williams Arcade Classics, halfway collections, Capcom Generations. devil cube R-kinds great Puzzle Fighter 2 rapid Bomberman Parodius ingredient sparkling 2 Time disaster rapid Reload Blood Omen: Legacy Of Kain FF7 Doom & very final Doom Puchi Carat with padle controller The Raiden Trilogy.

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15. When a hydrogen atom absorbs a photon, what is it that causes the increase in energy?

I would try to give you a different answer. Perhaps what you want. You have asked whether proton and neutron would be bound to gether with a larger force? Firstly hydrogen atom does not contain neutron at all. It has proton and electron. When photon is absorbed it increases the kinetic energy of the electron and decreases the potential energy of the electron. Increase in KE is more than the decrease in potential energy hence the total energy of electron increases.

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16. Is it true that doing Laser Hair Removal on armpits can get rid of the darkness of the skin there?

Undergoing laser hair removal is the only way to permanently reduce or eliminate hair growth. Excessive hair growth in unwanted areas can be due to genetics or medical conditions. Laser hair removal is commonly used to remove unwanted hair on the face, neck, armpits, chest, back, genital area, arms, legs, fingers, toes and feet. Prior to a laser treatment, you should have a consultation with a dermatologist to learn about the process, the side effects and whether you are a good candidate for the procedure, based on hair color, skin tone and hair characteristics. This article discusses the typical pre-treatment instructions that will help you to prepare for laser hair removal

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17. Do kittens have a biting stage?

In some more advantageous months. yet kittens taken residing house earlier 3-4 months old WILL reveal some habit complications because the mummy cat and siblings might want to have taught them no longer to be doing this. And the fellow to procure the kitten from must have socialized the kittens more advantageous useful!

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18. slight buzzing sound heard when move mouse sometimes , is this an indicator of a serious problem?

i had similar problem and what i found on web was chek your mouse drivers more likely u have more than one mouse driver install and they affecting each other- remove one of the drivers and leave only one for mouse - should help

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19. Acne 10 points to the best answer?

You can try the homeopathy ointment AQUI FOLIUM / any other homeopathic ointment for acne; but I cannot guarantee or prescribe any treatment for a naturally spotless skin. It is better to consult a Homeopathy specialist & get a holistic treatment as there may be more than one factor causing the skin problem. The root cause has to be treated to get a permanent cure.

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20. My mom has cancer/shouldn't her dr.be more aggressive?

Second opinions are always valuable. But the pill is probably a form of chemotherapy, which is itself an aggressive treatment. Two months is probably an appropriate time to allow before checking to see how it is working. Find out more about what the medication is and what it is supposed to accomplish.

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21. Whats TOOL like live?

I saw them live last year but they performed behind a huge white sheet and projected weird psychadelic images on the screens.Quite arrogant really and kind of killed the atmosphere. From what I hear they do this kind of thing a lot though.

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22. My fellow Species Atheist, If we got rid of Christians, would we begin to Evolve again?

According to science (the 2nd law of thermodynamics) the law of increasing entropy, your next stage is 1) A fat belly from eating genetically engineered wheat. 2) Higher instances of sterility and abnormal birth defects from DNA being bombarded by microscopic particles given off by exploding stars. 3) Children going through puberty at 7 years old from drinking milk contaminated with growth hormones. Welcome to the reality of de-evolution!

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23. Why is there a conspiracy by the obama regime to hide the facts surrounding the Bengazi massacre?

Now there are rumors that Benghazi substitute into the area of a CIA operation to deliver palms from Libya to Syrian rebels by Turkey, to help the Muslim Brotherhood interior the takeover of yet another Arab government. The attack substitute into particularly by using militants who knew concerning to the operation, and that they are competitors of Muslim Brotherhood. Obama went into panic mode that the attack might blow the conceal on his Muslim Brotherhood operation, so he reflexively went into conceal up mode and began telling lies approximately some video.

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24. Laser hair removal question!!!?

Bismillah ir-Rahman ir-Raheem used to be-salaat used to be-salaam ala Nabiyyina wa Habeebina wa Mawlana Muhammadin wa ala alihi wa sahibihi ajmaeen I dont see why no longer and that i additionally dont see why you might wish to do it? Unless your simply pondering ofcourse

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25. Do you classical music fans like neoclassical/symphonic metal or find it silly?

What I find silly are (1) attempts to draw comparisons between two completely different genres of music and (2) attempts to classify music into narrower and narrower sub-genres. Music is meant to be listened to dammit. The fact that some rock musicians are classically trained is as irrelevant as the fact that some classical musicians played rock music in their youth. Another thing I find silly is people trying to claim classical authority for sub-genres of popular music. I also find it shallow and pretentious. Anyone who puts technique before musicality will never produce anything I want to listen to.

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26. Who knows about Laser Hair Removal?

There are 5 exclusive forms of laser merchandise used for laser hair elimination. one million.The ruby laser , two.The alexandrite laser , three.The diode laser, four.The lengthy-pulsed Nd:YAG laser, five.Intense pulsed gentle (IPL) instruments are flash lamps no longer lasers. Laser remedy hair elimination operates by way of causation localized impairment therefore of warming darkish subject, (the hair). The excessive gentle is concentrated at the darkish subject while leaving the opposite materials of the dermis untouched

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27. Preventing inmate escape by executing escapees in front of the rest?

Electrify the fence surrounding the chicken yard. Then instead of the chickens escaping, McAngus will have fried chicken! As for executing the chickens, better not. The United Nations frowns on executing juveniles. ..but there is no problem if the chickens "suicide" on an electric fence! Good luck and God bless!

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28. How to contact the dead?

Do not listen to those that tell you to use a ouija board they are wrong that will only bring demonic spirits out other then that you may need to find a phykick(dont feel like looking up correct spelling) if your trying to contact a spirit haunting you try getting a recorder and asking some questions other then the ways i mentioned i dont think there are any

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29. Will becoming a club DJ make my boyfriend jealous?

hy gay dudes here stevie and daveey wee artwork in a gay mens bar eating place desire a job heyb you value more highly than the equiptment listed above a physique and seems too pass with it like us drop lifeless gorgeouss, merely come on motel, striop nakedd nothong on exhibits us what to procure wee pass from there remember no outfits on merely your resume!!

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30. How much will laser hair removal cost?

If you go to the Philippines, it will be a lot cheaper. The treatment could plus the travel expenses could even be cheaper than if you have the treatment in the US. Our doctors here get their technology from the US and Japan anyway, so they are as good but less cost. Many foreigners come here for cosmetic procedures

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31. Did the United States really go to the moon?

well if you are so convinced that moon landings are real, how would anyone on yahoo change your mind especially after you watched a documentary? if the documentary didnt change your mind, then it's probably already set in stone in your head that the moon landing did occur regardless of what anyone else tells you

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Frequently Asked Questions (FAQ) for Laser Stage Lighting
1. Why is there a conspiracy by the obama regime to hide the facts surrounding the Bengazi massacre?Now there are rumors that Benghazi substitute into the area of a CIA operation to deliver palms from Libya to Syrian rebels by Turkey, to help the Muslim Brotherhood interior the takeover of yet another Arab government. The attack substitute into particularly by using militants who knew concerning to the operation, and that they are competitors of Muslim Brotherhood. Obama went into panic mode that the attack might blow the conceal on his Muslim Brotherhood operation, so he reflexively went into conceal up mode and began telling lies approximately some video.------2. Do you classical music fans like neoclassical/symphonic metal or find it silly?What I find silly are (1) attempts to draw comparisons between two completely different genres of music and (2) attempts to classify music into narrower and narrower sub-genres. Music is meant to be listened to dammit. The fact that some rock musicians are classically trained is as irrelevant as the fact that some classical musicians played rock music in their youth. Another thing I find silly is people trying to claim classical authority for sub-genres of popular music. I also find it shallow and pretentious. Anyone who puts technique before musicality will never produce anything I want to listen to.------3. Did god show Tesla in visions all his great inventions?Most great advances that relied on science, mathematics came by a very few individuals. If these individuals had not contributed their knowledge and technology at the time they did, our world today would not have existed. Many of these knew that the knowledge they came to did not always originate with them. I believe an example is an Indian mathematician that came forth with a mathematical proof that he insisted had been given him by an Indian divinity. Only by this lofty proof have some recent advances been possible. Tesla is a prime example of such one individual. While the godless take all this as simple happenstance, there is no such thing as orchestrated happenstance, and that is what we are facing.------4. Can a circulating light beam produce a time machine?According to Ronald Mallett it can. Mallets theory attempts to warp space-time using frame dragging, a postulate that he backs up using general relativity and the relation between energy and mass. Mallet posits that since both can curve space-time he would be able to produce a frame dragging effect which allows for the relativistic observation of light moving faster than light. At this point the theory is working on a machine which can only send at the largest sub atomic particles back in time. anything larger is very very far off, and at this stage no one is yet sure if it will work. There has been published some work which contradicts the assumptions of Mallett, stating that within his core analysis he allows for the creation of a singularity. Another objection works off of mallets own definitions of the space-time metric, stating that given current technology the requirement for a laser ring would be much larger than the hubble length (size of the observable universe) Despite all of this Malletts theory is gaining funding. so its just a matter of time before we know whether or not his theories are accurate/applicable descriptions of the physical universe, or rather just mathematical quandaries. --Hope this helps------5. how do you lighten strech marks?Unfortunately,there is no remedy to magically get rid of stretchmarks.I have tried myself numerous prescribed and over the counter ointments,oils and solutions for the stetchmarks on my breasts and thighs and none seemed to work.After my mother had given birth she had the same problem and her gynecologist confirmed none of these solutions can make stretchmarks fade-this can happen only with time. HOWEVER,after having a talk with my dermatologist she did say that laser treatments could reduce the appearance as long as your stertchmarks are still light pinkish colour(this means they are at their early stage)if your stretchmarks have not appeared recently they are most probably a pearly white colour and not as visible,still theres nothing you can do about them anymore------6. Is it true that doing Laser Hair Removal on armpits can get rid of the darkness of the skin there?Undergoing laser hair removal is the only way to permanently reduce or eliminate hair growth. Excessive hair growth in unwanted areas can be due to genetics or medical conditions. Laser hair removal is commonly used to remove unwanted hair on the face, neck, armpits, chest, back, genital area, arms, legs, fingers, toes and feet. Prior to a laser treatment, you should have a consultation with a dermatologist to learn about the process, the side effects and whether you are a good candidate for the procedure, based on hair color, skin tone and hair characteristics. This article discusses the typical pre-treatment instructions that will help you to prepare for laser hair removal------7. New Year's at Disney (Orlando): Universal CityWalk or Pleasure Island?most of the events listed above especially city walk and pleasure island will be an extra charge that night. City walk had most of their events partitioned off form the non payers and they really missed out on a lot especially the free food drinks etc....My Favorite was finally seeing Styx live. Cindi Lauper will be at City Walk this year (not sure who at Disney) . Now MGM will have the Osborne Chriostmas lights festival still up and Epcot will have the candelight precission Christmas show (both are STRONGLY RECOMMENDED!) Neither ones of those are extra so you would be better off going to a different park and MK will be packed because of their special firewwork show at midnight------8. What equipment should I use for up close shots?For food photography you really don't need so much on the lenses side. It's much more about the background, composition and lighting. I would go for something around 50mm focal length, so both of your lenses should do fine.Your umbrellas and softboxes should work perfectly for creating a nice soft light, or go for natural lightning, and then combine them.You didn't mention though what's the F-number of these lenses - that's quite an important characteristic. So I assume you have 18-55mm F/3.5-5.6 kit lens and a 55-200mm F/4-5.6 cheapish tele. These are both quite slow lenses with a relatively small aperture - meaning you're not able to get a very shallow depth of field and they don't perform well in low-light situation. So if you want a lens suggestion, then something with a wide aperture like a fixed 50mm F/1.8 would be a great addition to your equipment; not so much for its value in food photography, but in helping you to learn how aperture size really affects the image and what a difference great glass can make------9. Could this be why General Petraeus was sacrificed?on condition that he did with the aid of being elected; i don't love protection stress coups. and don't be taken aback with the aid of Obama, the perfect president to extremely understand large scale protection stress operations became Eisenhower, at the same time as the perfect one with any first hand strive against journey became George H W Bush. "Too undesirable Obama did not step down, and enable a real Patriot and actual chief take over . " Obama stepping down may then convey about Biden turning out to be president, if Biden steps down we get Nancy Pelosi, etc. i do not want protection stress administration of america. depending on the outcome of miltary regimes in different international locations, no longer some thing good might want to come from that. And in summary, what Petraeus did did qualify as insubordination------10. Do you consider it a sin to get laser hair removal?This is what sort of confuses me too.Do we have to accept ourselves as God made us.Does he get angry if we change things and better ourselves etc and think were being disobedient to him? And the church also says things like if God gave a women natural beauty thats great and everything but women shouldnt use makeup and accept themselves as they were made.But i think thats horrible just say you have two daughters and ones beautiful and ones "ugly" do you have to say bad luck God made your sister stunning and you have to just accept your ugly and unnoticed and wear no makeup and deal with it etc?------11. Are there specific seats at Warped Tour?The Warped excursion must be popular Admission by fact it relatively is extra of an indie honest than in basic terms a rock stay overall performance. There are countless stages set around the section as properly as tents from communities which includes PETA, Greenpeace, Van's and so on. additionally they often have cubicles the place bands could have autograph instructions, so make certain you hit upon out whilst your well-liked group is signing! have exciting - it relatively is a blast - yet make certain you have lots of money to purchase water reason it gets relatively warm! playstation : convey a tote returned or returned %. by fact which you will get fairly some freebies!------12. can speed of light travel be possible by using magnetic propulsion in the 1st stage and then a laser beam ?Actually physicists are already using these techniques you mentioned to accelerate electrons, protons, and even heavier nuclei's to speed close to the speed of light. However, as these charged particles gets close to the speed of light, they start to emit a certain type of radiation called "Synchrotron radiation". So the energy that they continuously try to apply to speeding up the particles gets losts in the radiation emissions. Other methods used in speeding up particles in high energy accelerators usually result in the particles getting more and more massive, thus taking more and more energy to increase their velocity. And as the particles get more and more massive, they also start to slow down, so they never get to the speed of light.------13. How does Matter exchange and emit Radiation and Energy?I believe you are referring to reflection of radiation. All objects will reflect radiation, including visible radiations, especially if the radiation has a similar or longer wavelength than the atoms of the object. This means that visible light will be reflected (which is why they are visible !). The process of reflection is as follows. The radiation (photons) is actually absorbed by the surface atoms. The radiation raises the energy level of the (usually valence) electron shell. This extra photon energy is quickly re-emitted since there is no mechanism which will permit the electron shell to retain the extra electromagnetic energy (which is interesting in itself !). This re-emission is what we call reflected radiation. In other words reflection is actually a two stage process and not exactly like a bullet pinging off a steel tank.... :0)------14. intermittent fogging of vision during the day?Diabetes mellitus attacks blood vessels all over the body which is why it is a multisystem disorder. Diabetic retinopathy or maculopathy comes usually at a later stage (after 10 years usually) and a result of poor medication compliance from the patient. And in retinopathy the blurring of vision is progressive and fixed. Since you have gone for panretinal lasers there is probably some damage to to the nerves beneath the retina but is highly doubtful since the frequency of the rays are only enough to reach the retina. Do you experience a balckout sensation, weakness of the limbs whenever you have these intermittent fogging of vision? Coz another diabetic phenomenon is Transient Ischemic attacks which would cause these symptoms. You have to see a diabetic or internal medicine specialist to further investigate it. Probably by doing a cerebral angiogram and checking your lipid levels. Are you currently on cholesterol lowering drugs ? Are you havnig good control of diet? Poor patient compliance is no.1 target for progression and complications of DM.
Best ADJ Mega 64 Profile Plus Stage Light
Best ADJ Mega 64 Profile Plus Stage LightBuy Link: CLICK HEREADJ Mega 64 Profile Plus Stage Light Product Description:ADJ Mega 64 Profile Plus Stage Light. The ADJ Mega 64 Profile Plus is a compact, low profile wash fixture designed for uplighting, stage lighting and wall washing, and will bring color and excitement to any party. DJ ADJ. DJ, DJ Lighting, Laser Lights. Price: 279.95 USD. Sale Price: 199.99 USD.The ADJ Mega 64 Profile Plus Stage Light is certainly that and will be a great buy. For this price, the ADJ Mega 64 Profile Plus Stage Light is highly recommended and is a popular choice with lots of people.Buy it NowBuy ADJ Mega 64 Profile Plus Stage Light is a post from: Musical Instruments RELATED QUESTION What is proffesional led stage lighting? When you're putting on an occasion, whether it is an unassuming school play or a party, stage lighting rental is an unquestionable requirement. Lighting is a main thrust of your production, giving brightening, center, detail and modifying the view of the group of audience. There is nothing that so vitally passes on an inclination superior to a decent lighting system, and with boundless inventive potential, will serve as an immense advantage for your creation. Focus, position and hanging: Conventional stage lighting must be set up because of these three contemplations. Focus refers to where the light will point; position alludes to where the light will start from; hanging refers to the real demonstration of hanging the light. Shading, force and example (assuming any) should be considered next. Types of stage lighting : Ellipsoidal - these lights are the conventional stage lights and thought to be the most critical. They are centering lights, the appearance in front of an audience of which can be adjusted by screens and channels. Fresnel - these lights are utilized for shading washes on the stage. Standard Jars - these lights are the sort you will see in even the dingiest of bars. Continuously a strong choice, standard jars can get hammered, are sturdy and simple to transport. Follow spots - these are spotlights used to pursue somebody around a phase. Obviously, there are increasingly choices accessible for stage lighting with the consistent progress of innovation. Presently you have the fundamentals; here are a couple of more alternatives: LEDs - these Professional LED Stage Lighting are useful for centered pillars and have been gradually supplanting conventional globules in stage lighting. Dizzies - these lights are round circles with a few Drove lights (more often than not of varying hues) covering the surface. The circle pivots in an assortment of bearings and examples, making a whirling, confounding example, consequently the name. Gels - this term alludes to the hues given to lights. They function as shading channels, and should work in congruity with the shade of the light itself to accomplish the craved impact. Once you have got your types of lighting down, you'll have to consider where to place them. Here's an essential summary of lighting positions: Front - This is utilized for the most part for perceivability and shading impacts. Side - can be utilized to awesome impact to complement activity. Back - Additionally utilized for impact. This kind of lighting can make the dream of profundity on a phase, or notwithstanding to silhouette a man totally.
Payment Channels in Bitcoin
Payment channels are a separate solution called 2nd layer solution. This was possible to develop because the Bitcoin network has certains guarantees that allow applications to be built on top of it. Payment channels (Lightning Network for example) are one of the most popular. Some of the guarantees of the Bitcoin network that allow payment channels (and other blockchain applications) are:Quorum of control: With multisignature constraints in scripts, the Bitcoin network ensures that there is a quorum to manage the funds controlled by multiple users.Timelock: This ensures that a script can only be executed before or after the specified time lock.No double spending: One of the top fundamentals of this decentralized consensus algorithm, no UTXO can be spent twiceNon-expiration: A valid transaction doesnt expire, so it can wait forever until is picked to be added to the blockchain. Censorship resistance: Anyone having the private key can spent an UTXO with no censorship of any kind.Authorization: By providing digital signatures the networks allow only authorized addresses to manage funds.What are Payment Channels?Payment channels are a trustless mechanism for exchanging bitcoin transactions between two parties outside of the bitcoin blockchain. In short, they are mechanisms for underburdening the blockchain, by moving a lot of transactions out of the blockchain and into private routed channels between users but still counting on blockchain security.Now lets look at how State Channels work to illustrate the basic concepts:A state channel is established by two parties through a transaction that locks the shared state on the blockchain. This transaction is called the funding transaction or anchor transaction. This transaction must be settled in the blockchain (mined) in order to establish the channel.Once the funding transaction has been settled the two parties can start exchanging transactions called commitment transactions . These transactions are held off-chain until the channel is closed. When exchanging commitment transactions the two parties invalidate the previous state so the last state or the most up-to-date transaction state is the one it can be redeemed on the blockchain.Finally the channel can be closed cooperatively by submitting a final settlement transaction to the blockchain or by either party submitting the last commitment transaction to the blockchain.Only two transactions are settled on the blockchain, the funding transaction and the settlement transaction. In between these two, there can be as many commitment transactions as we want, they will alter the shared state, holding always the last state to be ready to settle on the blockchain whenever its needed.A Payment Channel Practical ExampleLets suppose Juan and Sarah establish a payment channel. Sarah wants to learn coding, and Juan teaches her by a hourly rate of 0. 25 Bitcoin using a streaming software that uses payment channels automatically. Sarah funds the channel with 1 bitcoin (funding transaction). Sarah uses her UTXOs and generates a multisignature output with Juans address. Once the transaction is sent to the blockchain and mined, the channel is valid and then the teaching session starts. After one hour the software automatically generates a commitment transaction that changes the channel balance to credit 0.25 bitcoin to Juans address and refunds 0. 75 bitcoin to Sarah. When two hours passed, another commitment transaction alter the shared state resulting in 0.5 btc in total to Juans address and 0.5 to Sarahs address. After that, Sarahs is tired of all the coding and decide to stop the session, either Juan or Sarah can transmit the final state transaction for settlement on the blockchain. This last transaction (settlement transaction) pays Juan for the two hours session of coding and refunds Sarah the remaining bitcoins of the funding transaction. This transaction is settled on the blockchain. Notice that the funding transaction was of only one bitcoin, so in this case that was the channel capacity meaning that this channel only allowed Juan to teach a maximum of 4 hours.Side Note: Theres a problem with this example. Because the channels need a funding transaction provided by one of the parties it can lead to trustless problems. Imagine Sarah had 3 hours lesson, so the balance will be 0.75 bitcoin to Juan and 0.25 bitcoin to Sarah, but why would she transmit to the blockchain the last balance as the settlement transaction? She could send the first transaction (0. 25 to Juan, 0. 75 to her) and pay only for one hour lesson when she had 3. This kind of problem can be solved with time locks and asymmetric revocable commitments. We wont see the details in this blog post, but it basically means that every transaction on the channel has a locked time in the future making it refundable if the timelock expired, and the transactions also include a key which one party can punish the other if they cheat. Hash Time Lock Contracts (HTLC)If we want to go deeper on the mechanisms of the payment channels, we have to understand what HTLC is. The HTLC is a special smart contract for using in payment channels that allows participants to commit funds to a redeemable secret with and expiration time. Lets say Sarah wants to pay Juan one bitcoin over an already open payment channel. First, Juan has to generate a secret R which only Juan will know about. Second, he will hash the R secret with a hash function, getting a H hash.Hash(R) = HThird, he can send the hash H to Sarah and she can make a transaction and put the H hash in the lock script with a flag that indicates the time limit to redeem the funds. Now, only the person who knows the secret R to fulfill the condition of the hash can redeem the bitcoin. The time limit is because if the secret R is not revealed, the payer of the HTLC can get a refund after a finite amount of time passed, or more precisely after certain amount of blocks.The Lightning Network (LN)The LN is one of the scaling approaches to the bitcoin blockchain. Its a routed network of bidirectional payment channels connected end-to-end, meaning any participant can route a payment from channel to channel without using any of the intermediaries.Lets see an example with five participants; we have differents channels that connects Juan to Sarah, Sarah to Kim, Kim to Ryan and Ryan to Florence.So, Juan wants to pay Florence one bitcoin, but he isnt directly connected to Florence, and he doesnt want to open an new direct channel to Florence as he has to commit more money to open a LN channel. Juans Lightning Node has the ability to connect to Sarahs and discover new routes between payment channels, and it also has the ability to connect over the internet with Florences node. As weve seen before, Florence generates a secret R that only she knows. She hashes it and send the hash H to Juans node. Now, Juans node creates an HTLC payable to someone who knows the secret that can solve the hash H, with a 10-block refund timeout, for an amount of 1.003 Bitcoin. Why do we need the extra 003 Bitcoin you may be wondering? This extra money will be used to compensate the intermediate nodes for their participation in the routing of the payment.Juan sends the HTLC to Sarah; the HTLC sent to Sarah means that Juans is commiting 1. 003 of his channel balance to be paid to Sarah if she knows the secret, or refunded back if 10 blocks elapse. Sarah doesnt knows the secret to claim the 1.003 locked by Juan, instead she creates another HTLC on her payment channel to Kim. On this HTLC Sarah commits 1. 002 bitcoin to someone who knows the secret to solve the hash H for 9 blocks. In the same fashion, Kim commits an HTLC of 1.001 to hash H for 8 blocks to her channel with Ryan. From Sarah and Kims perspective, if the secret R is known, they will gain 0.001 each one on and if it isnt known they lose nothing. Finally, Ryan offers an HTLC to Florence commiting 1 bitcoin for 7 blocks to hash H. At this point, Florence knows the secret R to solve the Hash H! She can therefore claim the HTLC from Ryan. She sends the R secret to Ryan and gets the 1 bitcoin. Now Ryan has the secret R so he can claim the HTLC committed by Kim on their channel and get the 0. 001 bitcoin on their channel balance. Flowing back through the route the secret R allows each participant to claim the difference in the balance of their channels. That is the incentive of the participants to route payments, they put a stake on their personal channel balance (plus a fee), and if the secret is known, they can claim back their stake and earn the fee.Juan has paid Florence 1 bitcoin without opening a direct channel to her. None of the intermediate parties in the payment route trust each other and for their help routing the payment they earn a small fee. Beautiful isnt it? XDThis post was an attempt to introduce you to the payment channels and the Lightning Network. I believe its good to have a basic understanding of payment channels before you dig deeper into the LN. There is a lot of information online about the Lightning Network specifically, so I will finish this post here. I hope you learnt something new, you can follow me on twitter for Blockchain related news, topics and insights.Call to ActionHeres more links about the LN if you want to dig deeper:Stats of the Lightning Network: ioLN test nets explorer & stats: Buy a coffee with Bitcoin on the LN! (testnet) : Network topology view: gaben. winIf you want to know more about Blockchain, join to our weekly newsletter with all the news from the crypto space RELATED QUESTION What is proffesional led stage lighting? When you're putting on an occasion, whether it is an unassuming school play or a party, stage lighting rental is an unquestionable requirement. Lighting is a main thrust of your production, giving brightening, center, detail and modifying the view of the group of audience. There is nothing that so vitally passes on an inclination superior to a decent lighting system, and with boundless inventive potential, will serve as an immense advantage for your creation. Focus, position and hanging: Conventional stage lighting must be set up because of these three contemplations. Focus refers to where the light will point; position alludes to where the light will start from; hanging refers to the real demonstration of hanging the light. Shading, force and example (assuming any) should be considered next. Types of stage lighting : Ellipsoidal - these lights are the conventional stage lights and thought to be the most critical. They are centering lights, the appearance in front of an audience of which can be adjusted by screens and channels. Fresnel - these lights are utilized for shading washes on the stage. Standard Jars - these lights are the sort you will see in even the dingiest of bars. Continuously a strong choice, standard jars can get hammered, are sturdy and simple to transport. Follow spots - these are spotlights used to pursue somebody around a phase. Obviously, there are increasingly choices accessible for stage lighting with the consistent progress of innovation. Presently you have the fundamentals; here are a couple of more alternatives: LEDs - these Professional LED Stage Lighting are useful for centered pillars and have been gradually supplanting conventional globules in stage lighting. Dizzies - these lights are round circles with a few Drove lights (more often than not of varying hues) covering the surface. The circle pivots in an assortment of bearings and examples, making a whirling, confounding example, consequently the name. Gels - this term alludes to the hues given to lights. They function as shading channels, and should work in congruity with the shade of the light itself to accomplish the craved impact. Once you have got your types of lighting down, you'll have to consider where to place them. Here's an essential summary of lighting positions: Front - This is utilized for the most part for perceivability and shading impacts. Side - can be utilized to awesome impact to complement activity. Back - Additionally utilized for impact. This kind of lighting can make the dream of profundity on a phase, or notwithstanding to silhouette a man totally.
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