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Problem Installing Boot Camp Windows Partition on New Mac Pro
I had the exact same issue. I have tried beats all possible solution that I can come up with. I even tried with all listed solution in web forums. It seems like the Windows version that I use at first place is oldee version and new bootcamp not compatible with it. You need to use a Windows version anything not related then 2018 March. That's all you had to do. It will work. Good Luck1. Mac Pro Or Custom PC?If gaming is your thing, custom PC is the way to go. Losing iMovie will really hurt your video editing, but Windows has some OK video editing software2. iMac 2012 vs Mac Pro 2008 [closed]Based upon the specs on Apple's website, a new iMac would provide a significant boost over your older hardware, however whether it's enough to justify it is a personal decision. The new iMac maxed out would have a 3.4 GHz quad-core i7 (turboboost to 3.9) compared to 2.8 quad-core, 32GB 1600MHz DDR3 ram vs 14GB 800 MHz DDR2 (yours also maxes at 32GB), SATA version 3(6GB/s) vs version 2(3GB/s), USB 3.0 vs 2.0, Thunderbolt vs. firewire 800, and increased (depends on your card) graphics performance from the NVIDIA GeForce GTX 680MX. So yes all that will outperform your current Mac Pro in its current arrangement and in a nice compact package with a fancy new 27" screen. But...While all this sounds great, it's as far as you can go with it of course. You can upgrade no more past those specs on the iMac unlike the Mac Pro. I am of the opinion that a refreshed or new Mac Pro is coming soon, so if it was me I would wait if possible. Even it was 6 months or so, I would wait. Only you know what you need however. If those specs seem good enough to you then do it. But if you need to be able to upgrade the graphics card, add a PCI-X card, want more than 32GB of ram in the future, need an optical drive, firewire(maybe), RAID...the list could go on... then waiting for the next Mac Pro is your best bet, but you probably already knew that.Another option is going ahead and buying the iMac how you want it, use it until the next Mac Pro is released, then sell the iMac to recoup some cost after purchasing the new Mac Pro. It's more hassle, but possibly worth it if your current set up just is not cutting it anymore. And since they both would likely have Thunderbolt, transferring data should be relatively quick.Also...On the topic of upgrading, I am not sure, but it may be possible that the motherboard of your Mac has an open slot for another Xeon processor (although you would need a matched pair). So with some work you could potentially upgrade your existing hardware to have 8 cores. Might be worthing looking into... I do not know. Mac Pro specs at Apple2012 iMac Specs at Apple3. I got this ATI Radeon 5770HD graphics card from Apple Mac Pro can it work on asus extreme rampage motherboard?yes, it will work fine, get the driver from ATI NOT ASUS4. How can I get MAC pro products?What a lot of people do is they will actually call the stores themselves and get them to ship. Some things, like the eyeshadow and blush pans, are available at freestanding MAC stores in the regular shades. eBay and Makeup Alley are two other ways that people get stuff, and then on occasion (spring/summer and fall/winter trends, and then Halloween) some PRO products are on the website. Currently (only for another few days) there are some Lipmixes, as well as Atlantic Blue eyeshadow. That makes two of us on the makeup artist thing though:)5. Buy New Mac Pro or build a PC with the money?Mac. Hand's down. Remember, once you go will never go back6. Windows 7 64-bit on a late 2007 Mac ProIf your Mac has a 64 bit processor (that is, a core duo or other dual core processor) and you are running snow leopard with bootcamp 3.0, I believe so.7. I want to order the Mac Pro Longwear Foundation, but I'm not sure what color I should order. How can I decide?If you go to MAC Cosmetics | Official Site | Home Page you can do a live chat with someone from the site that may be able to help you find the right shade. They may have a better chart or a comparison chart to use to help. They could also tell you if they do exchanges or refunds if the color is wrong. I like Stephanie Vardavas suggestion of going to a department store counter to try it and find the right one. If your local department stores are like mine, and carry a VERY limited selection of cosmetic brands/options though, try the website. Good luck!I want to order the Mac Pro Longwear Foundation, but I am not sure what color I should order. How can I decide?.
James Bond Is Back: See Daniel Craig Hit the Gym in a Boot After 'bond 25' Set Injury
Agent 007 is back in action.After an ankle injuryon the set last month landed James Bondstar Daniel Craig in surgery, the 51-year-old actor is back in the gym, training to again take on the iconic action role."Daniel Craig hitting the gym hard, prepping for shooting next week!" the official 007 Instagram account shared Saturday. Craig was previously forced to undergo two weeks of post-surgery rehabilitation.Craig's Bond' injuries are stacking up. He can add this to two teeth he lostfilming a stunt for "Casino Royale" in 2006; the finger tiphe sliced offwhile filming2008's "Quantum of Solace,"and the knee injury he sustained while filming a fight scene for 2015's "Spectre."Chris Hemsworth would love to play Bond: He even has an audition tapeThe set of the untitled 25th Bond film has been rocked with drama: After Craig's injury in Jamaica in May, an explosion stunt gone wrong left a crew member injured.EON Productions released a statement on the James Bond official Twitter account about the incident at Pinewood Studios outside London."During the filming of a controlled explosion on the set of Bond 25 today at Pinewood Studios, damage was caused to the exterior of the 007 Stage," the statement read. "There were no injuries on set, however one crew member outside the stage has sustained a minor injury."Despite both hiccups, the production company has previously said the movie remains on track to meet its announcedrelease date ofApril 8, 2020.Contributing: Bryan Alexander and TheAssociated Press
What Is Uboot
U-boot beton is a formwork made of recycled polypropylene, designed to create lightened intermediate slabs and raft foundations in reinforced concrete. The use of U-boot formworks permits to build specific mushroom slabs: the mushroom is part of the slab thickness. U-boot remains dip into the concrete casting. Thus, a grid of orthogonal beams, superiorly and inferiorly closed by plane slabs of different heights, is obtained without executing two distinct concrete castings, all that implies a remarkable saving of concrete and reinforcement.U-boot is used for structural elements of different types such as slabs or foundation grants solution preformation considerable designing technical and economic. Disposable formwork for two-way voided slabs in reinforced concrete cast on site. U-Boot Beton is a recycled polypropylene formwork that was designed to create two-way voided slabs and rafts. U-Boot Beton is used to create slabs with large span or that are able to support large loads without beams A lightweight, cellular concrete made by infusing an unhardened concrete mixture with prepared foam or by generating gases within the mixture.IntroductionAdvantages compared with tradition play on cement systems those and light weight training or fully faceted to win slabs the traditional clay cement or polystyrene floor slabs. The traditional clay cement or polystyrene floor slabs normally consists of mono directional beings that discharge stresses on to the main beings from these two pillars and finally the foundations the full plate floor slabs instead are made from monolithic reinforced concrete casts in which the structure is able to bi directionally transmit loads directly to the by using U-boot and lighter slab structure is obtained capable of splitting the stresses in any direction transferring them directly to the penance to simplify the concept we could imagine a series of double teams of alongside the other and arranged as a premise all stresses will be concentrated close to pillars where the suitable full section gets left in this way floor slabs with mushroom like files for the repose in modern people specificity being that the mushroom is embedded in the floor.So ,cutting or encumbering capitals and economic boxster's and avoided thanks to the lightness of the structure doing away lightness of the work the passage of utilities and the layout of internal wards U-boot will make it possible to optimise the plan layout of pillars without having to keep the specific distributed limitations as well as reducing their number benefiting for more extension spans and without encumbrances the overall thickness of the floor slabs will also be considerably reduced and as a result they use full saving in height will be obtained for each individual forum is the possibility for tower buildings of gaining an extra floor with the same that involved compared floor with a full slab the wind saving will favourably influence the dimensioning of pillars and foundations and the thickness to be reduced in vocations the foundations will be less important and less stressed also behaviour under in case of fire the building greater lightness high inertia and reduced surface area reduced surface area exposed to the effects of heat confer autumn resistances to find from acoustic specific tests guarantee that a floor slab useU-boot technology provides insulation performances that are superior compared with traditional clay or cement systems lightweight polystyrene zing's a benefit of no mass importance is the better quality of the concrete surface finish to be left visible or ready for the skimming without further processing to the numerous advantages link to the work itself economic logistic and building site advantages are added for construction firms is processing less consumption of concrete and steel less handling n ground and overground this encumbrance with in the parameters of the site there's transport and storage changes all things to a material is stackable tough and able to withstand all weather conditions first an hour will be handling a product that is safe from the light nonssoiling and easy to use u-boot is the ideal solution for all buildings in which judging beams structures would need to be avoided typically slab solution is sort together with savings in those concrete and weak the U-boot beton building system is particularly suitable for the construction of high-rise village hospitals commercial centres school buildings parking management residential and industrial buildings.In case of raft foundations having a greater inertia U-boot makes it possible to implement sweaters with a better performance given the same concrete used the grounds are found to have a low carrying capacity furthermore be possible to eliminate or reduce complex andcostly foundation pockets.Whats your favorite football boot? Football boot help!?Ctr360 i think they are better and more comfortable when playing with them. i personally like adezero micoach adidas boots for they are so light and most of all i will always prefer/like the nike mercurial vapour best ever
How Should I Center a Light Fixture When There's a Vent Stack in the Way?
Install a new-work box against the stud. Inspect. Install drywall. Once you are all done and passed all your inspections, install an old-work box in the correct location and fix the drywall1. I am trying to replace a wall light fixture that is connected to a switch. The light just stays on.?I included a couple links below ,but that defently sounds like you have a three way switch meaning you have more than one light switch controling that light fixture such as stairway.Check out the links below...they should help you2. how do i kill a wasp nest nest in a ceiling light fixture?wow thats pretty scary ****. i would call an exterminator... or many men3. I have an old light fixture with two white wires. No black, no ground. How do I install it?Sounds like something is wrong with it. Look and see what is wrong with it4. How do you remove a stuck dome light fixture? | EveryThingWhat.comClick to see full answer. Similarly one may ask, how do you remove a stuck ceiling light cover? Hold metal frame and pull down on glass fixture. One side starts coming out giving confidence to pull more. Finally remove the glass to find three spring clips that hold the glass fixture. Tap the metal ring gently the dome pops out. One may also ask, how do you remove a ceiling light fixture that has no screws? A few ways: There will be little finger nuts to loosen, usually 3, that if you turn counter clockwise will allow the lip of the fixture to drop down (into your hands! be ready to catch it!) There are no visible nuts: turn the cover counterclockwise and it should 'screw' out. Just pull - it may snap off. Also to know is, how do you remove a stuck glass cover? Keep the decanter in the hot water for about 10 minutes. Add more hot water if it becomes cool. Remove the decanter from the water and attempt to remove the stopper. Tap gently with a wooden spoon at the sides of the stopper to loosen it. How do you replace a dome light? Turn the dome light to the "Off" position. In most vehicles, the "Off" position is the middle of the three options on the switch. Unscrew the light bulb from the dome socket. Replace the lens cover then push on it to snap it in place or use the screwdriver to secure the screws.5. Replacement Options for T12 Four light fluorescent light fixtureYou can go T12, T8 or LED, and 2, 3 or 4 lamps. That is decided by which ballast you buy. This is decided by the wiring of your fixture. Each bulb end has 2 pins because there's a small filament in each end of the bulb. Rapid or Programmed Start ballasts use both pins to preheat those filaments for an easy start and longer lamp life - so they have 2 wires to each end of each bulb. Instant start ballasts do not, so they only have 1 wire. If you have instant-start, stay with it - otherwise you may need to replace the lamp sockets. You probably have inventory of T12 bulbs, but they are basically obsolete. T8 bulbs are inexpensive, more efficient, have much better color rendition (typically starting at 80% CRI) and come in several light colors (3500K, 5100K etc. ) Edit: since I wrote this I have started fitting 90CRI T8 tubes, readily available for under $2 each, they are marvelous. You do not see it in the tubes, but rather, in the stuff being lit up. LEDs come in 2 flavors: "direct wire" (rewire the fixture for 120V on the lamp ends) or "keep the ballast". (no rewiring, the smarter LED emulates a bulb). The trouble with the second kind is you must maintain the ballast, and it must be of a certain type (i.e. instant start). With direct wire, you remove the ballast entirely and wire 120V to the lamp end(s). Some "direct wire" LEDs take the 120V on one end of the lamp (the other end is a dummy) - that can be a problem in a fixture with 1-wire sockets. T8 bulbs are generally brighter than T12 bulbs. Look at the bulb rating in lumens, but multiply by the ballast factor (a percentage) - they make ballasts designed to underdrive or even overdrive the bulb's rating. Often when lighting is carefully designed, they replace 4 bulbs with 3 or 2, because T8's are brighter and/or because they found the space was "over-lit". LED lumens are lower, but they are worth a lot more, because they are all aimed in the right direction - unlike fluorescents which waste a lot of energy lighting the backside of a reflector. Changing ballasts is rather straightforward and I pay between $12 and $30 on 1000bulbs. com or other sources. I aim for middle to top shelf quality - my first choice is GE, and I find good deals on boxes of new ballasts on eBay. Edit: 4-lamp ballasts are readily available. The tactic of getting 3-lamp ballasts and only fitting 3 tubes works well with T8, as they are somewhat brighter. I have also been doing great on eBay buying new or lightly used ballasts that were pulled from newish fixtures for LED upgrades. As low as $4 each. I regularly see direct-wire LED replacement 4 foot "tubes" for under $10, often from or It's pretty easy work if you do not mess with the lamp sockets - just get a big bag of "blue" wire-nuts, a stripper, and go to town. If your fixture is hard-wired, you must install "disconnecting means" - I power down, install half the connector on the hot lines, then power up and do everything else. When I replace lamp socket ends ("tombstones"), I pay about 60-70 cents each for those, and they are fairly standard. But the labor gets pretty high
Albeit Not the Smart Way to Go, but How Does One Wire a Light Fixture Without Turning Off the Curcui
Your right but I have done it...can you not just shut the switch off to the light? If not then what JAY said is correct. I see somebody gave him a thumbs down but he is right on with the order of things. I agree that sometimes it's easier this way it's not good trade practice but I do it all the time. probably should not fess up to that one huh? Good Luck1. fluorescent light fixture works with older bulb but not new?Check all of the indications on the bulb, not just the wattage. Different bulbs operate differently (as someone mentioned, there are fast start bulbs out there). And, any differences will be annotated in the model number on the bulbs. You have to get exactly the same model number for the replacement bulbs that are on the old ones for them to work properly2. Can I wire a 'house' light fixture into my camper? Is the wiring the same?Most campers have two systems....One is 12V and the other is 110 or house current. 12V is normally a special type plug in like to a cig lighter. You have to be certain you do not cross the two as it will not work and would be dangerous. Check and see if the new fixture is a regular plug in or not3. Where can I find a light fixture with an outlet in it?Light Fixture With Outlet4. How should I center a light fixture when there's a vent stack in the way?Install a new-work box against the stud. Inspect. Install drywall. Once you are all done and passed all your inspections, install an old-work box in the correct location and fix the drywall5. How do install a second switch for one light fixture?You need to have two 3-way light switches and either a 12 or 14 gauge wire with 3 wires inside (either 12W3 or 14W3) depending on the amperage on the circuit (20A vs 15A respectively). You are safer to use the thicker 12 gauge wire however to avoid drops in voltage. And also, before doing any wiring make sure to turn off the breaker switch to the area you are working. If you are unsure which switch shuts off the electricity just plug a lamp into a wall socket located as close as possible to where you plan to install the light switch and turn off breakers until you find the one that shuts the lamp off or i guess in this case until the light you are working on shuts off :)6. How do you install a light fixture in a bedroom?Is it for sight and you need an extra one or are you growing something.If you need an extra light to see you will need to run wire from fuse box,I would not suggest trying that,you need an electrician.If it is a grow light you can buy the fluorescent type,bulb and all. Then hang it or mount it.7. Attach light fixture with 3.5" bolt holes to ceiling box with 2.75” bolt holesI managed to attach the light fixture using the universal crossbar, but with some improvisation.The light fixture included two combo truss bolts that were designed to screw into the junction box but this did not work because of the incompatible sizes(3.5" and 2.75").The solution was to bolt the crossbar to the junction box and hang the combo truss bolts (to attach the fixture) from the top side of the crossbar, with the bolt heads resting on the top of the cross bar. Then I secured the fixture to the bolts using nuts.Not perfect but the fixture is stable and secure.Thanks for your comments guys!8. Is it a fire hazard to change a ceiling light fixture that had 4 lights with one that has 15 lites?That depends on the total wattage of the bulbs in the new fixture. If all the bulbs in the new fixture are 100 watt or higher then the circuit will be overloaded. If the bulbs are 60 watts or less there should not be a problem, providing the wiring is up to code. If the bulbs are the LCD type, you have nothing to be concerned about.
Meaning of "boot
In that story, Egg has a ring proving he is the nephew of the King (or some such relation). That ring is hidden in his boot. So when Egg threatens to "use the boot", he means to take the ring out and use that authority. So this is not a question of English usage. It is a question of the plot of the story1. Stoner going to boot camp?They will drug test the piss out of you, no pun intended. It's not even worth it, haha.2. should I shower at night or in the morning?interior the iciness i like morning showers better because of fact i am many times plenty chillier interior the morning and it feels so stable to get interior the extreme high quality heat bathe. to boot, I would desire to bathe off each and all of the drool from whilst i became asleep3. boot from usb?You can boot from usb devices. Go to motherboard options(F2 or Del during boot) -> advanced -> boot-> usb boot=Enabled . Then u should make usb the 1st bootable device4. MY SON IS SICK...... PLEASE HELP.?Aww. It is so sad when babies are sick. Try a humidifier for your baby. Put it in the nursery. It really helps. Colds are so miserable but he will be better soon. You did the right thing by taking him to the doctor. You are a good mommy. This time of year don't go a lot of places and don't have a lot of people around him. It's a bad season. Also, I was a stickler about people not being around my baby if they were sick or just getting over being sick and if they wanted to hold my baby they had to wash their hands.5. Chainload from windows boot manager to Grub with Secure Boot enabledBoot both Linux and Windows from UEFI. Its that simple, as you can see chainloading either Windows from GRUB or Linux/GRUB from Windows Boot Manager has drawbacks for Secure Boot and Bitlocker.Many Motherboards give the UEFI boot menu with F11. If that does not work try Escape or Delete to either get a functions menu or this might drop right into configuration which might give you a boot order configuration or an option to "instant boot" which is the same thing the boot menu does. The key is you are selecting the OS you want from UEFI not from a boot loader6. New laptop (Skylake) cannot boot Xubuntu even with boot parametersYou may need to go with all the settings skhansj provided, but I had success on 3.x and 4.x kernels with this same computer using the following:"i915.preliminary_hw_support=1 nouveau.modeset=0 acpi_osi=! acpi_backlight=native idle=nomwait"Using the above, I had all 4 cores running and the function keys worked for LED and screen control. You might need to press the LED down first and then up because the OS seems to think the think is at full power even though it is at zero on startup.I still have not solved touchpad. I've tried a variety of i8042.x commands at boot but have not found one that works yet. I will certainly let you know.. I even went and built 4.3.3 last night and included all the right i2c and psmouse stuff directly in the kernel and it was not successful. I had NVIDIA working on the ppa drivers but I have since disabled it becuase I am getting great support out of the intel driver in 4.3 (which I compiled direct into kernel rather than making a module).Also: On 4.3.x kernels you can drop the preliminary hw support, and you can drop the nouveau overrides on startup once you have configured your drivers. I kept nouveau. modeset=0 in my cmdline even on 4. 3 just because I want to ensure I do not boot in that mode7. When I boot my computer I get the message - Reboot and selesct proper Boot device or insert boot media in?Hi. Your BIOS may be set wrong. Change the boot order to Hard drive first. If this is not it you may have a failed hard drive8. Preparation for boot camp ?Go to YouTube and watch documentary videos on Green Beret, Navy SEAL, and Army Ranger training. Look at what they go through and know that what you will be doing for the next few months would literally be a walk in the park for those recruits. That's the mental aspect, but to be ready physically, be able to do at least 40 push ups in a minute, probably 45 sit ups, and be able to run three miles with energy to spare.
Installing Hanging Light Fixtures
Your hanging light fixture may serve a strictly utilitarian purpose or dangle romantically from the ceiling, but the fixture must adhere to municipal electrical standards and securely hang from a solid ceiling framing member. Before you purchase and install the fixture, consider the fixture style, installation method and structural support of the ceiling. Proper sizing and style selection ensures that the fixture will perfectly suit your home and provide years of attractive and safe illumination.Walk into any home improvement store, and you'll be dazzled by the great variety and complexity of hanging fixtures. Not all fixtures are alike, however. The hanging light fixture is a luminaire with lights hanging from a cord, cable or rod that is connected to a ceiling-mounted housing. Chandeliers, pendants and some types of ceiling fan fixtures are considered hanging luminaires. Lighting manufacturers offer seemingly endless designs and colors suited for any type of room, decor and color. When selecting a fixture, survey your home's style and the room's general atmosphere. Your fixture should reflect or enhance the overall aesthetics of the room. For example, a dangling candelabra fixture suits a formal dining room very well, but looks awkward in a home office or laundry room. Choose the correct light for the correct purpose.Many municipalities adhere to the National Electric Code (NEC), a standardized compilation of guidelines for the safe and practical installation and maintenance of electrical systems. For hanging luminaires, the NEC prohibits cord-connected fixtures over bathtubs and shower stalls 3 ft horizontally and 8 ft vertically from the top of the bathtub rim or shower stall threshold. Many of the new types of hanging fixtures are incompatible with electrical wiring installed before 1985. These luminaries require wire rated for at least 90 degrees Celsius; older wiring is generally incapable of carrying heavier loads and poses a fire hazard. To determine if your wiring is capable for a modern fixture, check your home's electrical wiring for "NM-B" or "UF-B" printed on the sheathing or contact a professional electrician. Your local building codes department may require additional precautions, so consult them before the installation to ensure your fixture and electrical system meet local standards.Pendants and chandeliers can easily weigh dozens of pounds, and the whirring motion of a hanging ceiling fan rapidly strains an inadequate ceiling support. Most existing electrical boxes are large enough to contain the supply and fixture wires, but if the box is shallower than 1/2-inch deep, replace it. Never hang a light fixture from suspended ceiling grids or any other suspended object. The electrical box must be securely fixed to solid ceiling framing with No. 8-32 machine screws rated for up to 50 pounds. Hanging fixtures are equipped with a metal mounting strap -- called a crossbar -- that is anchored to the electrical box. Ensure that your box can hold the load. For heavier fixtures, home improvement stores carry electrical boxes with support braces, called ceiling fan support braces. These special boxes are rated for loads over 50 pounds. The braces are adjustable and are secured to any two ceiling joists, providing greater support for heavier loads.Before you begin any electrical work, always turn off the electrical power to the circuit and test for voltage with a voltage tester. Due to the heavy weight of larger fixtures, you may prefer to pre-assemble the fixture before hanging it. Lighting manufacturers usually provide detailed instructions for their particular model, but the basic mounting system of a luminaire is comprised of a crossbar, lock nut, screw collar loop, pendant cord or rod, canopy and canopy nut. Loosely attach these pieces together, then secure the crossbar to the electrical box with the screws provided. Connect the wiring and cover the electrical box with the canopy and canopy nut. For very heavy fixtures, enlist the aid of a helper who can support the fixture while you connect the wires and attach the fixture to the ceiling. In general, hang a fixture approximately 30 to 36 inches above the typical table height of 30 to 35 inches.
Add Scound Linux OS Dual with Centos 7
According to your setup, you are using LVM for partition management. Therefore the /home directory is not accessible without unlocking the LVM volume group (VG) and it will not be easy to load the ISO file without this.It may be possible to load the ISO but it will be complicated. Please try to boot from USB using BIOS startup options (press a system-specific key before the boot loader is loading, sometimes F1 or F12 or Esc to select the boot device - your USB drive!)I have been trying to add a second OS Ubuntu 16.04.2, actually I have installed Centos 7 as primary os.I download the ISO file of Ubuntu and load it to USB drive using the DD.I tried to boot from the USB using the grub2 terminal without success.Now I am trying to load the ISO from my hard drive from my /home//download/.I tried to add a new entry in the grub2 menu by editing the/etc/grub.d/40_custom: menuentry "Ubuntu 16.04.2 ISO" set isofile"home/usern/Downloads/ubuntu-16.04.2-desktop-amd64.iso" loopback loop (hd0,1)$isofile linux (loop)/casper/vmlinuz.efi bootcasper iso-scan/filename$isofile noprompt noeject initrd (loop)/casper/initrd.lz finally here is the output of fdisk -l:Disk /dev/sda: 750.2 GB, 750156374016 bytes, 1465149168 sectorsUnits sectors of 1 * 512 512 bytesSector size (logical/physical): 512 bytes / 4096 bytesI/O size (minimum/optimal): 4096 bytes / 4096 bytesDisk label type: gpt ##### Start End Size Type Name 1 2048 411647 200M EFI System EFI System Partition 2 411648 2508799 1G Microsoft basic 3 2508800 1465147391 697.5G Linux LVMCan anyone help or guide me on how to install Ubuntu in dual boot?
Why Has Novell Never Written Its Own Boot Loader?
From Network World: NetWare never ran on top of DOS. A server was booted to DOS solely to run the NetWare boot loader (a DOS program). It did not need to do that, it could have booted directly but that would have required Novell to build its own BIOS loader to initialize all of the hardware. The NetWare designers felt that there was no need to reinvent the wheel, so let DOS handle that.Novell was not the only operating system vendor to use MS-DOS as a boot loader: Microsoft did much the same for 16- and 32-bit Windows, especially from Windows 95 onwards where returning to DOS was not a standard feature. (Windows NT and its successors did not use DOS as a loader.)This paper from Drew Major et al. does not explain why they used DOS for booting but does offer insight into Novell's design philosophy:The NetWare operating system is designed specifically to provide service to clients over a computer network. This design has resulted in a system that differs in several respects from more general-purpose operating systems.I would imagine booting from DOS to be one of those differences that places convenience and simplicity over traditional OS goals.If you are interested in learning more of the design of NetWare, this paper is a good place to start.Finally, Novell did eventually write their own boot loader.1. Does a boot loader unmount the ramdisk BEFORE mounting the root file system on the hard drive?Does a boot loader unmount the ramdisk [...] ?No.Later, the kernel unmounts the ramdisk and mounts the root file system on the hard drive. And then, starts the initialization stage by executing the first process. This is wrong. The initramfs contains a program named /init. This program is executed, and is the first (user) process whilst the initramfs is still there. Indeed, it is this program that triggers any unmounting that goes on. This is the /init program used on Debian 9 Linux. Fedora has a similar system named Dracut. As you can see, the script loads modules, runs hooks, mounts the final root filesystem, and finally overlays itself with the run-init program that is to be found in the klibc-utils package. (Earlier versions used either run-init or switch_root according to what was available.) Dracut still uses switch_root. Dracut at this point has spawned an entire systemd-udevd subsystem which has run and autodetected devices and run dmons for and mounted volumes from those devices. Dmons spawned by systemd-udevd for DASDs continue to run in parallel with switch_root. The run-init program in its turn deletes the contents of the initramfs, chroots itself to the new root filesystem, opens its /dev/console, and overlays itself with whatever the init program on that filesystem is to be, which it knows from either a variable named init on the kernel command line or a default for that variable assumed by the first /init program. switch_root does much the same, albeit with some slight differences. Dracut passes it the name of the init program which it has similarly obtained from the kernel command line. As you can see, neither the kernel nor a boot loader trigger any of this. The boot loader is well out of the picture by the time that the /init program is started as process #1, and the kernel simply does what the /init program, the programs in the hooks that it spawns, and the two further programs that it overlays itself with, tell it.And no, there is no point in this process, from the moment that process #1 is started with the /init program from the initramfs onwards, where it is possible to have no filesystem mounted. There is always at least one process running, and that process must have a working directory, a root directory, and a program image file, all of which must reference vnodes from a mounted volume somewhere.You will observe that the original initramfs can only go away when the last mount point is moved off it and the last process to use it, as per-process current directory, per-process root directory, or program image file, goes away - or, as run-init and switch_root do, switches both working directory and root directory to some other volume and overlays itself with a program image from a file from some other volume. Note that the systemd people accommodate the possibility that the initramfs does not in fact go away at all, because there a programs running from images from that volume, and remains present for the lifetime of the system. So what actually happens is that both the original initramfs and the final root filesystem are both present at one point in the process, and indeed possibly from then onwards. Far from there being a point where there are zero root filesystems, there is a point where there are multiple root filesystems and then (as the references to the initramfs go away) it drops back down to one again. (Note that filesystems for /proc, /sys, /dev, /run, /dev/shm, and /dev/pts are present at the time of run-init/switch_root running, so the total count of mounted filesystems, root and otherwise, remains well above two throughout the bootstrap process. ).2. Grub doesn't see windows 10 after messy ubuntu install, win boot loader boots into grubThe info is useful but points to a to a bodge, regarding important mounting points and a possible BIOS config issue. You do need to know what you are doing when it comes to setting up Ubuntu, let alone a dual boot. The some kind of DOS on sda2 suggests you have an MBR disk and that partition points to your data file, not your W10 system so that should not even be in there as a GRUB option. For now I would concentrate on getting Windows back. Power down, disconnect your HDD (the one with Ubuntu on it), then start up and see if W10 will boot. If it does not then your MBR and maybe your BCD file are messed up. Both can be repaired externally without the need for a re-install, but that's another subject. Meanwhile I suggest have a good read of this first before attempting another dual boot installation3. what is the best way to get a SEIZED breach plug out of a muzzle loader?Sawed off
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